While I'm not aware of any tool doing so by default, it can be achieved using Tasker – the ultimative automation tool on Android. A detailed description of available commands etc. can be found in its UserGuide.
Basically, Tasker works with Profiles, which are a combination of conditions and tasks – so you define which conditions should be matched, and what tasks to execute in that case. A raw example (just the concept) for your case could look like this:
- Condition: Event → Phone Ringing
- Task: (Display details)
Details depend on what's available. Here Tasker offers different details. You could have it open your call logs:
Show the Call Log tab of the standard Android contacts application.
or use any of the available variables:
Call Name / Number/ Date / Time (In) (dynamic, monitored)
%CNAME / %CNUM / %CDATE / %CTIME
The caller name, number, date and time of the current (if a call is in progress) or last call received.
Caller number is 0 if it's unknown.
Caller name is ? if it's unknown (probably because the caller number was blocked) and set to the caller number if the contact couldn't be looked up. It's unavailable on Android versions prior to 2.0.
There are different methods of notifications available, such as
- Flash: Flash a message up.
- Notify: Show a notification on the top bar.
- Notify LED: Show a notification on the top bar and flash an LED.
- Notify Sound: Show a notification on the top bar and play a sound.
- Notify Vibrate: Show a notification on the top bar and vibrate.
- Set Tasker Icon: Set the icon for Tasker's permanent notification in the status bar.
- Vibrate On Notify: Whether to vibrate with a system notification.
Some things can be combined, of course – and there are more possibilities you can investigate.
There might be additional options with other apps you can e.g. find in my app lists on Various Contact and Phone Tools (specifically, in the section Various caller tools). There's e.g. Call Actions which sounds promising concerning your requirements. Furthermore, on F-Droid you can find CallerDetails which sounds like a good match:
Show contact details saved against a contact such as organization, email, address, note, etc in a toast message whenever there is an incoming call. If you have not set these fields for a contact, toast will not be shown.
I have not tried any of the last two apps, which is why I recommended Tasker in the first place – which is an app I'm using for years already, and am pretty happy with. Regular updates, runs stable. Just requires a little time to get used to, but it's definitely worth it!