I see more programmers using Jekyll for their blogs lately. In ways, it covers the basics.
[x] Source code syntax highlighting (You may want to check this method)
[x] Free (it's closedly tied to free hosting in Github, via Github Pages)
I haven't done enough research on other platforms, but I am sure you can find ...
I would recommend Nikola - it is free, written in python and specifically offers:
Blogs, with tags, feeds, archives, comments, etc.
Fast builds, thanks to doit
Flexible, extensible via plugins
Small codebase (programmers can understand all of Nikola core in a
reStructuredText [Cheatsheet] or Markdown as input language (also
Wiki, BBCode, ...
Drupal has more plugins than anyone could possibly use!
You can try radiantCms.
Although it's not a pure blogging platform, it definitely supports this functionality as shown
in the Wikipedia article.
It offers Markdown during writing and like most CMSs and the ability to mess around the code.
Finally it has a large collection of extensions where you can find something like this for code highlighting and it's ...
Ghost blogging platform is very good. Apart from being open source and using markdown, it is lightweight with a beautiful minimalist them. it uses Nodejs for its back-end. It also support extensions. It is still being developed.
I have finally found something: couchCMS
It is called CMS, but actually it is a kind of the programming framework, more or less what I was looking for. You can add it to any existing site without a need to rerwite it.
You don't even need a blog platform for that.
Just a static site generator like Pelican or Jekyll would be sufficient, you write with a Markdown editor (I use MacDown personally), you generate the HTML files of your blog using a tool like Pelican or Jekyll, you host it for free on github pages, and then point your github page to your domain.
For example, I ...
What about https://tiddlywiki.com ?
It is not a dedicated blogging software but it can certainly function as one.
You can write in either local flavor of wikitext or markdown.
Can be exported as original markup, markdown, json or rendered to static html.
Great organization features with comprehensive tag system, extensible with scripting.
Can be used ...
How about reStructuredText?
It's a pretty complex markup language under the hood, but still just a text-based, mostly human-readable markup language. Markdown is simpler (about as simple as you can get short of writing HTML by hand), but lacks some features you might reasonably want for a blog like tables and custom spans or blocks.
You don't ...
You might try Wordpress (How to Password Protect Your WordPress without User Registration).
A word of caution : As there's a need to install an additional plugin, you will probably need to install it on an owned server/domain (wordpress plate-form will make you pay if you want to install plugins)...but it's free to download and use.
I would strongly recommend Nikola:
Content can be generated/edited in reStructuredText, Markdown, IPython (Jupyter) Notebooks and HTML, and there are plugins for many other formats.
Fast build & upload only regenerates the changed pages
Themed and changing themes is quick and easy
Easy image inclusion
Test (development) server and server with automatic ...
You actually don't need a locally installed git client for Jekyll to run, since github pages will actually do the compilation for you every 10-15seconds from my experience. The only reason you need a local client for Jekyll is if you are doing theme-type development, which requires git, and ruby packages.
If your just adding new post articles then you ...
You might find Tiki interesting. It's a self hosted groupware platform and wiki that supports all of your listed features either built in or via plugins. It's actively maintained and as a very large community.
I also tried it for a project but it was just too powerful but maybe it's exactly what you need.
Not sure of many other solutions out there, but you should be able to do it with Write.as (note: I'm the creator), as it was built to help with this as much as possible.
We have over 7,000 published articles, and over 100 blogs created since we launched them last month, so your essays would make up a small fraction of all the writing out there.
We don't ...
If you want total control, i.e. the html file served then use gh-pages. These are ideal for projects, blogs and pure html. For this you might need a understanding of git etc.
everything you make with gh-pages is available for every one. Your source code will be on the repo. Also, gh-pages is not ideal for dynamic pages. Only static html.