Historically there are a lot of different "languages" to create websites. Maybe "language" is not the correct word, as for example html is not a programming language. But it is a system consisting of keywords, delimiters and a certain syntax you have to use to make the machine do what you want it to do.
Ok, it is what it is and we all are used to. But is it efficient?
In most programming languages you would try to hide all the technical details of a transaction like AJAX in some library to get better usability. Finally, you would end up with a single language and a bunch of libraries to use.
Most of the newer approaches like Angular or React try to expand the HTML syntax somehow to get program-like structures, but I would even not know how to call the result. HTML is no programming language, not even a scripting tool. It is hypertext. So, most of the tools are very limited in adding some loop-functionallity to HTML. But as soon as you need a bit more complex interaction like multi-level loops, the functionality is too limited...
In my opinion, HTML is still superfluous today. You can generate DOM elements directly using the HTML-DOM-API. But finally, you will still be working with most of the other approaches.
So, here is my question: Are there any recommendations to reduce the number of standards for web design? Maybe a JS-Library, that covers all aspects of web programming? Or projects, that try to unify the whole process of web interaction into one single language? Any recommendation is welcome!
Some years ago there have been some tools to mimic the work of the DELPHI-IDE for web design, but I do not know any projects that are currently still maintained.