Is there an app that will text back the location of a cell phone over text message for android?
Root is acceptable.
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One possible solution is to use Automate application. You can create flow to get current location and send it via SMS.
Unfortunately I do not have first hand experience but the application seems self-explained.
You could use SMS my GPS. Per the app's description, it should meet your requirements just fine:
SMS my GPS listens for incoming SMS text/data messages and conditionally sends an automatic reply containing GPS location data. The „trigger-word“ and white-listed sender phone number can be configured in the app.
With just 190k APK size it's quite handy. Haven't tried it myself, so I cannot tell how reliable it works – but as it's free and open source, certainly worth giving it a try.