Adobe illustrator is rather good at vectorizing images as well. The built-in function for this is called Image Trace and it allows you to set a bunch of parameters that control how well paths and corners are followed, how small a group of pixels has to be to be considered noise and how many colors you want to use in the vectorized version. A down-side of Adobe Illustrator is the price. It is expensive so if you don't have a license via your work or university or happen to own the package because (for example) you use Photoshop for photo processing then that might be a dealbreaker.
Illustrator takes virtually any raster image format as input and can export to .eps, .pdf and .svg as the most common vector. My experience with the image trace option is that it is extremely simple to use. You open an image in Illustrator (for example .png), click Window > Image trace and you can starting setting controls. Once you're done you hit trace to see the vectorized result and if you are happy with the result you can go to Object > Image trace > Expand to do the final splitting of the vectorized image in separate vector units.
To showcase the capabilities of the program in vectorization I have two examples. The first is an example image of a color explosion is shown below to showcase how well it reproduces all the colors. You can recognize that the picture on the right is vectorized from the blue outline in the bottom right, which is a vector patch.
In the second example image below you see the options menu for the image trace with the settings that you can adjust. A landscape image is pretty much the hardest thing to vectorize because of the continues color gradients throughout the image. The bottom image shows the result from illustrator when you set both paths and corners to 100% and recognize only single pixels as noise.
As you can see the vectorized image (recognizable from the fact that the options in the image trace have been disabled) look closely similar to the original, except for the white-ish streaks in the image. This is in fact a rendering issue of the vector image which disappears if you zoom in a bit (see bottom image).