Presumably the Chromebook is connecting via WiFi so you need to act as a man-in-the-middle by running a WiFi server on the PC (either windows or Linux) and ideally connecting to your router via a wired link.
Obviously once you have that set up you can use Wireshark to examine the traffic and determine which IP Addresses or URLs are being communicated with but that will not let you change the traffic.
To me the go-to tool for both traffic analysis and for being able to generate new traffic, modify routing tables, etc. is scapy note that is scapy not scrapy the web scraping framework.
Scapy runs under Python but has a number of other dependencies so it is very important to follow the platform specific steps of the installation instructions.
To quote the documentation:
Scapy is a Python program that enables the user to send, sniff and
dissect and forge network packets. This capability allows construction
of tools that can probe, scan or attack networks.
In other words, Scapy is a powerful interactive packet manipulation
program. It is able to forge or decode packets of a wide number of
protocols, send them on the wire, capture them, match requests and
replies, and much more. Scapy can easily handle most classical tasks
like scanning, tracerouting, probing, unit tests, attacks or network
discovery. It can replace hping, arpspoof, arp-sk, arping, p0f and
even some parts of Nmap, tcpdump, and tshark.
Scapy also performs very well
on a lot of other specific tasks that most other tools can’t handle,
like sending invalid frames, injecting your own 802.11 frames,
combining techniques (VLAN hopping+ARP cache poisoning, VOIP decoding
on WEP encrypted channel, …), etc.