What programs do you recommend for calculations in the field of quantum mechanics, quantum field theory, relativity, string theory and loop quantum gravity?
QuTiP: Quantum Toolbox in Python
QuTiP is open source software for simulating the dynamics of closed and open quantum systems. The QuTiP library uses the excellent Numpy, Scipy, and Cython packages as numerical backend, and graphical output is provided by Matplotlib. QuTiP aims to provide user-friendly and efficient numerical simulations of a wide variety of quantum mechanical problems, including those with Hamiltonians and/or collapse operators with arbitrary time-dependence, commonly found in a wide range of physics applications. QuTiP is freely available for use and/or modification, and it can be used on all Unix-based platforms and on Windows. Being free of any licensing fees, QuTiP is ideal for exploring quantum mechanics in research as well as in the classroom.
All of the software mentioned in the preceding paragraph can be installed for Python 3.x from the default repositories in Ubuntu. For Python 2.x python-numpy is available for Ubuntu 20.04 and earlier and python-scipy is available for Ubuntu 18.04 and earlier. In Ubuntu 20.04 and later the QuTiP package can be installed from the terminal with the following command:
sudo apt install python3-qutip
Ubuntu 20.04 will be the first Ubuntu release to include QuTiP in its default repositories. Ubuntu 20.04 is scheduled to be officially released in late April, 2020. This will be a long term support (5 years) release. All Ubuntu releases are supported by updates for free during their normal support period. After the 5-year free support period has ended there is optional Extended Security Maintenance for an additional 5 years via Ubuntu Advantage which is free for personal use on up to 3 machines.
The official releases of QuTiP can be downloaded at: http://qutip.org/download.html
For instructions on how to install QuTiP see: http://qutip.org/docs/latest/installation.html