Disclaimer: My JS skills are intermediate. This is my opinion:
jQuery is a simple single file that gives you browser-independence for (a) manipulating the DOM and (b) to perform AJAX requests. It gives you -without much effort- the ability to write such JS code that works on legacy browsers down to IE8 (if you need that).
Besides, if you decide to use React, Angular or Vue, you probably don't need jQuery because it is just another dependency that makes everything less "clean".
For the other software (except Vue) you've mentioned, there's more to learn. You probably need a build-system and a more complex development environment.
Don't know much about Angular(s).
Vue used to be way less complex than React or Angular, can also be used as a single file but usually you need some add-ons. It gives you reactivity.