For learning resources check out this interactive tutorial, these are good due to there practical nature.
If you are like me and jump in at the deep end, try out learn python the hard way.
Finally, this one is Ubuntu specific, if that is your need.
For the actual coding, I recommend the default environment, call it with
in a terminal and get coding.
If you like a simple GUI, use a text editor, I like gedit (Ubuntu default), it has full syntax highlighting of files saved with the
If you want a full IDE, check out this post on AskUbuntu, for a large list.