Photoshop Elements covers all the jobs you mentioned, but it's not as heavy as the full, gigantic Adobe Creative Suite, so it's well within your price range as well. I picked up version 9 a while ago for about $80, and the full retail price for version 12 (current as of this writing) seems to be about $100.
You mentioned removing spots and filling in missing areas, and those are jobs done by my favorite tool in the program (because I'm an enthusiast, not an expert): the "spot healing brush." It automatically generates a natural-looking replacement for an area of your choosing based on nearby pixels, so you don't get the "edges not matching up" issue caused by just copying another section of the same image.
Elements contains get all the usual color/contrast/brightness/levels tools, as well. I've used it without any issues for JPG and PNG files. I haven't personally tried it on RAW files, but they are supported.
The only downside I've found is that it's a bit of a resource-intensive program, but you said you don't have constraints there, so you should be all set. Anecdotally, it struggled with panorama stitching on a 4GB machine with minimal hard drive space, but got much better on a 32GB machine with a half-empty SSD.
For a list of what the program does not offer that "regular" Photoshop does, see Adobe's FAQ entry on the topic.