Let me repeat a recommendation I already placed twice: Monitorix. It can be used as
But it also monitors "local resources" such as CPU, disks, and – sensors:
Monitorix: Complete LM-Sensors and GPU temperatures / Disk drive temperatures and health (source: Monitorix; click to enlarge)
Monitorix makes use of a lot of back-ends, such as the already mentioned lm-sensors Debian package. It also supports HP ProLiant System Health, NVIDIA temperatures and usage, plus several more. I'm using it for quite a while now, and found the software that convincing I volunteered to maintain the Debian packages for it (← disclosure). Monitorix saved my day more than once, as its "raw overview" makes it pretty easy to track down problems and to see where to have a closer look at. In your case: find the graph with the highest peak to see which component is "overheating", for example.
Monitorix is a web-based tool, so you won't have that "interactive view" from the AIDA64 screenshot in your question. But AIDA64 might miss the graphs.
To your requested features:
- Both command-line and GUI, or at least command-line: Monitorix is a Perl program, which can be managed via command-line (start/stop, editing its plain-text config, etc.)
- Remote managing (via network): sure, simply get a command-line via the network (e.g. via SSH)
- Logging results to file: kind of. Monitorix uses RRDtool for logging, so you'll have RRD files (Round-Robin-Database). But it also offers to send alerts, and more – so this might be "abused" to plug in some other logging, when needed.