On Mac, Launchpad: https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT202635
It works exactly like Android/IOS, and it is standard on newer Mac OS X Lion and Mountain Lion. I'm not sure of the status on Mavericks but seeing as Apple favors user experience, they probably kept at least some of the functionality.
On Windows, WinLaunch (http://winlaunch.org/) closely mirrors Launchpad. It is a platform for organizing apps in an Android-like manner.
On Linux, Gnome-Shell behaves in a similar manner, but it doesn't allow grouping of Apps directly on the overview. Details can be seen at Gnome's App Folders Configuration Blog post (https://blogs.gnome.org/mclasen/2014/03/17/app-folder-configuration/) and can be resumed in a single sentence: Use the application gnome-software to create folders and add apps to folders.
Link to the gnome-software website: (https://wiki.gnome.org/Apps/Software)
As everything Linux, it requires some know-how and some setting up, but that comes from a culture and as such I believe it is the best option for people using Linux.
As usual, Ubuntu has a more "user-friendly" interface for this, called "Launch Folders". Since this is specific to Ubuntu's Unity Desktop Environment and somewhat distanced from the rest of the Linux Community I decided to give it its own paragraph. It's also worth to note that Unity is based on Gnome Shell, thus there will be many similarities. The website: http://unity-folders.exceptionfound.com/
I'm not going to give my opinion on other Linux Desktop Environments as I do not consider myself experienced enough on them.
If there's anything else worth mentioning, I'll happily add it to the answer. :D