As an app able to do that amongs other things is acceptable:
There are several Automation tools available on Android which can be used to achieve this. I'm using Tasker for this kind of stuff – and with this app, would approach your goal like this:1
We set up a profile, which basically joins a condition to a task. Let's take your first example:
Profile "I am Here":
- Time: From: 9:17 (no "to", as we want exactly this point in time)
- Day: Day of week: Chose the days (Mon to Fri)
- Location: (Set your location)2
- Task: Media › Music Play, and chose the
.mp3 file to be played
Profile "I am not there":
For "the path" things might become a little more tricky. It would work similar to the above, and best thing I can think of is collecting the CellIDs on your path, and use them as "location" (i.e. "anywhere near those CellIDs"). You can also invert a condition (which is what you probably need: you're not near to any of those CellIDs).
I use similar solutions with Tasker e.g. to turn WiFi on when I'm home (via CellIDs – so no GPS or network needed for that), and off when I'm leaving home. Works wonderfully. As a side-effect, you'll get many more opportunities; to get an idea, be welcome to take a look at my Collection of Tasker Resources.
Tasker is available at the playstore for about USD 5 / EUR 3. A free 7-day trial is available for download on their homepage. Alternatively, there are some other automation tools which might be capable of the same (see the link above) – e.g. Llama, which comes for free. But as a Tasker user, I'm not familiar with the others, so I cannot really comment on them.
1: this is just "pseudo-code", not a tested solution – but shows perfectly how to do it with Tasker
2: Tasker can deal with different location sources, e.g. GPS, network location, Cell IDs. Make your choice. In terms of battery usage, GPS is most expensive, CellID least.