App List Backup does this. From the app's description:
Saves the list of installed apps so you can re-download them from Google Play Store later (on the same or another device).
App lists can be saved to SDCard. There's a free version, but there are also two paid versions of it with extended functionality. No root required AFAIK.
However, these solutions would only cover apps installed from Google Play – if you've loaded apps from other sources (e.g. F-Droid or Aptoide), they might not be covered.
If you want to cover more, Adebar might be worth a look – provided you have ADB tools available on your Linux computer (there's an article for a minimal installation of ADB at our sister-site). This little tool creates scripts to backup your apps and data, plus additional details, so you can restore them to the same or another device. Disclosure: I'm the author of it, and I've written/used it to "partly clone" my working device (which I had to send in for service) to another one. It's still in early stage, so feedback is welcome :) Adebar is free, no ads, and works without root (with root you've more covered of course, like configuration files which cannot be accessed otherwise).