I am looking for a program that can detect whether a PDF contains two identical images. If possible, Windows 7, free, and can process several PDFs at once.

Even better: the program could take several PDFs as input, and outputs a list of all images contained in all PDFs, along with the number of time the image appears in each PDF (i.e. the output would be a matrix with images as rows and PDFs as columns).

Use case: “This situation left me ashamed and infuriated with myself:” Scientist retracts two papers

Figure 8 contains duplicated images as well as images previously published in articles in Microbiology and Microbial Pathogenesis, i.e., the following:

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