For the most part, Windows itself provides what you want natively. You can define keyboard shortcuts for a command line (in the shortcut editor). The command line can be for the
explorer application to open a folder, or for the web browser to open a web page. This meets your requirements except for entering your password.
Most of the time a password is something you type in a web browser, and all major web browsers include a password manager. (You have to type your login password, otherwise you might as well not have one at all.) Keeping your password in the browser's password manager has advantages: they're all stored in one place, and the risk of accidentally entering them in the wrong place is low. Some web pages disable password saving for no good reason; for the same reasons I recommend a browser-based solution such as Autofill.
If you want to be able to insert arbitrary text in arbitrary applications, the gold standard seems to be AutoHotkey (open source). It's fairly powerful, it lets you start applications, manipulate windows and inject keystrokes. The macro syntax is horrible, but there are good tutorials on the website. There are a few examples of password insertion scripts on the forum 1 2 etc.